A. N. S. Zainal Abidin, N. A. Abdul Jalil, S. V. Wong and C. Y. Tan
Abstract: The study analyses 55 real world crashes involving motorcycles with passenger cars through on-the-spot crash investigation. Analysis was performed based on input gathered during vehicle damage assessment, crash site inspection and injury information provided by the treating hospital. Through the analysis performed, the data revealed that weekday crashes mostly occurred during morning period while weekend crashes were more prevalent at night. Crashes occurring during weekends were less likely to occur between 06:00 until 11:59 and 6.125 times more likely to occur during the night period (18:00 – 23:59). Most of the motorcycle – passenger vehicle crashes investigated involved situations whereby both the vehicles were travelling in the same direction, with one of the vehicle in turning manoeuvre. Moreover, 61.8% of the investigated crashes occurred when the passenger vehicles were at fault. The data revealed 28.7% of the involved riders suffered injuries to lower extremities, followed by head and neck injuries at 25%. In terms of injury severity of the involved riders, odds ratio value reveals that side impact, compared to other types of crash configuration were 3.750 times more likely to result in MAIS 3 and above. The result also proved that impact speed has a significant effect on the injury severity of the riders. MAIS level 2 and below injury severities were over presented for the lower range impact speeds while an adverse trend was observed for the higher range impact speeds.
Keywords:On-the-spot crash investigation, motorcycle safety, passenger vehicle, injury severity
Chawla, A., Mukherjee, S., Mohan, D., Bose, D., & Rawat, P. (2005). FE simulations of motorcycle – car frontal crashes, validations and observations. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 10(4), 319-326.
Fitzharris, M., Dandona, R., Kumar, G.A., & Dandona, L. (2009). Crash characteristics and patterns of injury among hospitalized motorised two-wheeled vehicle users in urban India. BMC Public Health, 9(11), 1-12.
García, J., García, D., Molinero, A., & Perandones, J.M. (2009). Improving motorcyclists’ safety in Spain by enhanced crash test procedures and implementation guidelines (Paper number 09- 0194). Universidad de Valladolid, Spain.
Haque, M.M., Chin, H.C., & Huang, H. (2009). Modeling fault among motorcyclists involved in crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 41(2), 327-335.
Huang, B., & Preston, J. (2004). Literature review on motorcycle collisions (Final report). Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford.
Leong, L.V., Mohd Sadullah, A.F., Wan Ibrahim, W.H., & Mohd Shafie, S.A. (2005). Comparative analysis of motorcycle utilization and forecasting model of motorcycle ownership of Eastern Asian countries. Paper presented at 6th International Conference of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies (EASTS), Bangkok, Thailand.
Mackay, G.M., Ashton, S.J., Galer, M.D., & Thomas, P.D. (1985). The methodology of in-depth studies of car, crashes in Britain (SAE Technical Paper 850556). Michigan, USA: SAE International. doi: 10.4271/850556
NHTSA (2006). Technical report recent trends in fatal motorcycle crashes: An update (Technical report, DOT HS 810 606). Washington, DC: National Highway Transport Safety Administration.
Peek, C., Braver, E.R., & Shen, H. (1994). Lower extremity injuries from motorcycle crashes: A common cause of preventable injury. Journal of Trauma, 37(3), 358-364.
Padmanaban, J., & Vitaly, E. (2009). Characteristics of motorcycle crashes in the US. Paper presented at 4th International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD) Conference, Seoul, South Korea.
RMP (2009). Royal Malaysia Police annual report, 2009. Kuala Lumpur: Royal Malaysian Police, Traffic Branch, Bukit Aman.
RMP (2014). Statistical report of road accident Malaysia 2014. Kuala Lumpur: Royal Malaysian Police, Traffic Branch, Bukit Aman.
Turner, P., & Higgins, L. (2013). Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies for motorcycle crash prevention and injury mitigation. Paper presented at International Motorcycle Safety Conference (IMSC) 2013, Orlando, FL, USA.
Walker, G.H., Stanton, N.A., & Salmon, P.M. (2011). Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(3), 878-888.
Weissenfeld, A., Baldock, M., & Hutchinson, P. (2011). Analysis of trends over time for motorcycle crashes in South Australia. Paper presented at the Australasian Road Safety Research Policing and Education Conference 2011, Perth, Australia.
WHO (2009). Global status report on road safety: Time for action. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Wing, K.D., Zainal Abidin, A.N.S., Mohd Fuadzi, S.A., Lamin, F., Mohd Radzi, M.A., & Omar, A. (2013). Fatality and severe injury in motorcycle crashes during OPS Selamat 2013/3 (MIROS research report). Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research.