A Study on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Pump System Performance using Model-Based Simulation

A. Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, M. F. Muhamad Said, A. Abdul Aziz, V. Esfahanian, M. R. Ahmad Baker, M. R. Mohd Perang and H. Mohd Jamil

Abstract: This paper focuses on a simulation study of a newly developed high-pressure fuel pump system for small engine. When an engine is operated at high speed in a typical Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) system, its pump will perform extra pumping requiring continuous engine work. Because it is driven by the engine’s camshaft, the extra pumping action is both unavoidable and parasitic. In this study, a new GDI pump has been designed and built to only operate at a constant speed, regardless of engine load and speed. The pump is driven by an electric motor via a camshaft and is intended for a four-stroke, 0.2 litre, single-cylinder, spark ignition engine. The electric motor is governed by a control unit called the Engine Control Unit (ECU). The GDI pump will supply fuel to a rail up to its maximum pressure capacity. The pump is developed in accordance with a physical model-based design approach and is simulated using Matlab- Simscape™. Based on the calculation and simulation performed, the designed pump pressure is capable of producing discharge exceeding 4.5 MPa. Theoretical calculation also shows that the pressure developed by the pump reaches 10.54 MPa when a two lobe cam is used. In addition, the pressure developed by the pump is recorded to be 11.15 MPa, with an error of 5.8 % when a similar condition is applied to the physical modelling.

Keywords:Gasoline direct injection (GDI), demand-controlled system, fuel pump, MATLAB, model-based design simulation

References

Achleitner, E., Bäcker, H., & Funaioli, A. (2007). Direct injection systems for Otto engines. SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1416. doi: 10.4271/2007-01-1416

Feneley, A.J., Pesiridis, A., & Andwari, A.M. (2017). Variable geometry turbocharger technologies for exhaust energy recovery and boosting – A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 71, 959-975. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.12.125

Ghanaati, A., Mat Darus, I.Z., Muhamad Said, M.F., & Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, A. (2015). A mean value model for estimation of laminar and turbulent flame speed in spark-ignition engine. International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering (IJAME), 11, 2229-8649.

Hiraku, K., Tokuo, K., & Yamada, H. (2005). Development of high pressure fuel pump by using hydraulic simulator. SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0099. doi: 10.4271/2005-01-0099

Hoffmann, G., Befrui, B., Berndorfer, A., Piock, W.F., & Varble, D.L. (2014). Fuel system pressure increase for enhanced performance of GDi multi-hole injection systems. SAE International Journal of Engines, 7(1), 519-527. doi: 10.4271/2014-01-1209

Husted, H., Spegar, T.D., & Spakowski, J. (2014). The effects of GDi fuel pressure on fuel economy. SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1438. doi: 10.4271/2014-01-1438

Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, A., & Abdul Aziz, A. (2012). Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technique: A review for application in two-stroke gasoline engines. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 165, 53-57. doi: 10.4028/http://www.scientific.net/AMM.165.53

Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, A., Abdul Aziz, A., Muhamad Said, M.F., & Abdul Latiff, Z. (2013). Controlled auto-ignition combustion in a two-stroke cycle engine using hot burned gases. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 388, 201-205. doi: 10.4028/http://www.scientific.net/AMM.388.201

Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, A., Abdul Aziz, A., Muhamad Said, M.F., & Abdul Latiff, Z. (2014). A converted two-stroke cycle engine for compression ignition combustion. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 663, 331-335.

Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, A., Abdul Aziz, A., Muhamad Said, M.F., M., Abdul Latiff, Z., & Ghanaati, A. (2015). Influence of hot burned gas utilization on the exhaust emission characteristics of a controlled auto-ignition two-stroke cycle engine. International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering (IJAME), 11(1), 2229-8649. doi: 10.15282/ijame.11.2015.20.0201

Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, A., Pesiridis, A., Karvountzis-Kontakiotis, A., & Esfahanian, V. (2017a). Hybrid electric vehicle performance with organic rankine cycle waste heat recovery system. Applied Sciences, 7(5), 437. doi: 10.3390/app7050437

Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, A., Pesiridis, A., Rajoo, S., Martinez-Botas, R., & Esfahanian, V. (2017b). A review of battery electric vehicle technology and readiness levels. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 78, 414-430. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.03.138

Miller, J.E. (1987). The reciprocating pump: Theory, design, and use. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Muhamad Said, M.F., Abdul Aziz, Azhar, Abdul Latiff, Z., Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, A., & Mohamed Soid, S.N. (2014). Investigation of cylinder deactivation (CDA) strategies on part load conditions. SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2549.

Shin, K.C., Lee, S.J., Lee, D.R., Yoon, J., & Jun, S. (2013). Vibration analysis for GDI components using partial coherence function. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars – Mechanical Systems, 6(2), 1070-1077. doi: 10.4271/2013-01-1702

Spakowski, J.G., Spegar, T.D., & Mancini, L. (2013). Development of a low-noise high pressure fuel pump for GDi engine applications. SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0253. doi: 10.4271/2013-01- 0253

Spegar, T.D., Chang, S.I., Das, S., Norkin, E., & Lucas, R. (2009). An analytical and experimental study of a high pressure single piston pump for gasoline direct injection (GDi) engine applications. SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1504. doi: 10.4271/2009-01-1504

Spegar, T.D. (2011). Minimizing gasoline direct injection (GDi) fuel system pressure pulsations by robust fuel rail design. SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1225. doi: 10.4271/2011-01-1225

Sun, P., Xin, Baiyu, C., Chen, H., & Li, J. (2013). Model based nonlinear controller design for fuel rail system of GDI engine. Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress, 6: Vehicle Electronics, 503-514. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.