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Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2018)


Development of a Mobile Driving Simulator to Eliminate False Motion Cues

M. Abdullah, S. Koetniyom and J. Carmai
pages 220-230

Abstract: Driving Simulators are a valuable tool for the evaluation of driver assistance systems and analysis of user behaviour. They consist of a vehicle mock-up and a display, motion and an audio system. As, driving is mainly a visual task and the driver receives most of the information through his eyes, so the configuration of the display is very important for accurate perception of surroundings. Important features of a display system are its distance from driver’s eyes, field of view, continuity and the picture quality of the displayed image. In order to simulate motion, most of the existing driving simulators consist of a dome, mounted on a Stewart platform, which is either stationary or moves on a rail or a horizontal table. Due to the limiting working space of the motion system of such driving simulators, they cannot accurately simulate longitudinal accelerations so they use scaled vehicle dynamics model or blend the longitudinal movement of simulator with the tilt movement, which the driver perceives as unrealistic motion cues. To eliminate the issues of false motion perception in the driver, a mobile driving simulator is developed, which is to be driven on a planar area and a display system is designed around it. The display system covers the horizontal and vertical field of view of the driver and the distance of the display system from the driver’s eyes is chosen in such a way that it takes into account the accommodation effects, which helps in the perception of depth. This results in a display system in the form of 220° cylindrical dome with a diameter of approximately 4.8 meter.

Motorcycle Accident Scenarios and Post-Crash Kinematics of Motorcyclists in Thailand

J. Carmai, S. Koetniyom, W. Sungduang, K. A. Abu Kassim and Y. Ahmad
pages 231-244

Abstract: This paper unveils a classification of motorcycle accident data in Thailand to identify common accident scenarios and impact parameters for multibody dynamics simulation of motorcycle crashes. The simulation results were analysed in terms of kinematics of riders and passengers as well as head impact locations. Motorcycle accident data revealed that rolling over without any contact with other vehicles was the most common scenario, while the side swipe was the most common type of crash involving other vehicles. The majority of accidents involved passenger cars with riders’ age ranging between 10-29 years. Serious and severe injuries accounted for 20% of the total number of casualties whereas minor abrasions and bruise accounted for 41%. Four common accident scenarios were identified together with a range of impact speeds, impact angles and impact points to generate impact conditions for multibody simulations. The simulation results revealed two patterns of global kinematics including (i) the rider together with the child pillion passenger were laterally projected towards the other vehicle as the other vehicle hit the lateral side of the motorcycle; and (ii) the rider together with the child pillion were launched forward in the direction of impact when the front wheel of the motorcycle hit the other vehicle. The vehicle hood was found to be the most frequently impacted area by the rider’s and child passenger’s head. The car windshield was the second most frequently impacted location for the rider’s head. For pick-up truck, the passenger window was the second most frequent area of impact. There was a moderate number of A-pillar contact on the car but such a situation was rare for the pick-up truck.

Identifying Blind Spot Zone for Passenger Cars using Grid-Based Technique

M. S. M. Hashim, A. H. Ismail, S. Abu Bakar, M. S. Muhamad Azmi, Z. Mohamad Razlan, A. Harun1, N. S. Kamarrudin, I. Ibrahim, M. K. Faizi, M. A. M. Saad, M. F. H. Rani, A. R. Mahayadin, M. A. Rojan, M. S. Azizizol and M. H. Md Isa
pages 245-251

Abstract: A person driving a passenger car depends on the rear view mirror and two side-mounted mirrors to observe the surrounding in order to see vehicles approaching from behind. However, the approaching vehicle may enter a region outside the driver’s field of view, making it inconspicuous to the driver. Such a region is known as the blind spot zone (BSZ). Although driving schools emphasize the importance of checking for vehicles in BSZ before attempting to change lane, many fatal collisions have occurred during lane changing. Thus, it is important to understand BSZ particularly its corresponding parameters in order to develop an effective system to detect approaching vehicles and provide warning to the driver. In this paper, a systematic approach using a grid-based technique is proposed to model the BSZ. An experiment was conducted using a commonly used passenger car in Malaysia as a test bed to model the BSZ. Controlled experimental parameters were introduced, and the final results showed that BSZ can be identified using the grid-based technique.

Updating the Child Restraint Systems Reference List for ASEAN NCAP

N. Abu Husain, N. I. Mohd Zaki, S. M. Che Husin, Y. Ahmad and K. A. Abu Kassim
pages 252-266

Abstract: Child car occupants must be secured using appropriate Child Restraint Systems (CRS) in order to reduce the risk of severe injuries in the case of crashes or emergency braking. As part of ASEAN NCAP protocol, the so-called “CRS Reference List” of widely available, well performing child seats was established to assess a vehicle’s ability to safely and correctly accommodate child seats. In 2017, ASEAN NCAP introduced a new upper and lower limit crash pulse curve to better represent crashworthiness of cars available in the ASEAN market. With this new curve, the CRS Reference List must be reviewed accordingly; which is the aim of this project. This paper describes the process to update the CRS Reference List, starting from exploring the potential of CRS in three ASEAN markets (i.e., Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia). The identified CRS were then evaluated based on several selection criteria (i.e., availability, regulation approved, weight group combination, price, size and installation direction). Based on the evaluation, several CRS are shortlisted for further technical assessment following ASEAN NCAP Child Occupant Protection (COP) protocol. The CRS shortlist is presented in this paper. However, the proposed CRS Reference List will not be disclosed in this work.

Applying Analytical Hierarchy Process to Evaluate Adult Occupant Protection on Body Region in ASEAN NCAP Offset Frontal Test Domain

H. A. Aziz, E. H. Sukadarin, N. S. Suhaimi, H. Osman, M. N. Noordin and I. Shafiee
pages 267-274

Abstract: Adult Occupant Protection (AOP) is a vital area of evaluation in all New Car Assessment Programs (NCAPs) around the globe. The primary objective of these new car assessment programs is to reduce road deaths by focusing on vehicle (pre-crash) safety features. Starting from the year 2017 until 2020, a single rating system has been introduced whereby AOP contributes 50% to the overall rating with a maximum of 36 points; split into three main domains including offset frontal test (OFT), side impact test (SIT) and head protection technology (HPT). However, the extent of OFT protection to car drivers and passengers during a collision still needs to be explored. Therefore, in this study, an evaluation of body region injury due to AOP failure in frontal crash is conducted to validate and support NCAP rating. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is put forward on the basis of expert’s input from various related fields to evaluate the injury to body regions and OFT protection during an accident based on the current situation. The results show that head, neck and chest indicated the highest severity, followed by knee, femur and lower leg with respect to the Consistency Ratio (CR) of 0.0633. This was in line with the focus of ASEAN NCAP’s AOP protocol whereby the three body regions were deemed as the critical parts and required sufficient protection. Based on the findings, it is proven that ASEAN NCAP’s consideration of OFT in AOP is well developed and suits the current needs.

Rollover Risk Probability Analysis for SUVs and MPVs in the ASEAN Market

S. P. Santosa, A. Jusuf, L. Gunawan, K. A. Abu Kassim, M. L. Hakim and B. P. E. Wiranto
pages 275-288

Abstract: The number of single vehicle and rollover accidents in Indonesia has reached approximately 10,000 (7%) per year. Such an accident is typically followed by a large number of fatality, especially in the case for SUVs and MPVs. In the US, motor vehicle rollovers involving passenger cars, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles result in around 10,000 deaths and 27,000 serious injuries each year. Although single vehicle and rollover accident in Indonesia accounts for less than 10% tow- away crashes involving light vehicles, it has recorded almost one-third of light-vehicle occupant fatalities. The aim of this research is to develop a method to predict rollover probability. One of the key geometrical parameters to describe the rollover risk of vehicles is Static Stability Factor (SSF) which can be correlated with rollover probability using NHTSA statistical data. SSF is defined as the vehicle half-track width divided by its center of gravity height. Since information pertaining to the location of centre of gravity is not publicly available, a method was developed to predict it by using published technical data which were validated using NHTSA database. It was then used to predict rollover probability data for MPVs and SUVs in Indonesia. The method can be a tool for manufacturers, consumers, and regulators to reduce the number of rollover accidents which in turn may reduce occupant fatalities. The result can also be a means to assess the trend of rollover accident risk in the ASEAN region and will be beneficial for ASEAN NCAP in determining SUVs and MPVs safety rating.

Linear Quadratic Regulator Based Control Device for Active Suspension System with Enhanced Vehicle Ride Comfort

S. M. S. M. Putra, F. Yakub, Z. A. Rasid, S. A. Zaki, M. S. M. Ali and Z. H. C. Daud
pages 289-305

Abstract: The suspension system is required in an automobile in order to absorb shock that comes from various type of disturbances such as irregular road profile, engine vibrations and wheel. Besides, the suspension plays an important part in enhancing the passenger ride comfort. The suspension will make sure that the tire is always contacted with the road for a better grip and braking. Conventionally, passive suspension has been used in car manufacturing that leads to huge vibrations that affect the ride quality. This is because ride comfort of passengers gets affected by overshoot and settling time of vehicle under vibration. Therefore, a good controller design is required to minimize the vibrations. In this research, an active suspension of quarter car model that considers only vertical movement is utilized in the suspension system. This paper presents a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) method to enhance the vehicle ride comfort towards the vibration of the suspension system. The control design approach is then compared with the classical control which is the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) that is set as a benchmark control. The results for both controllers are evaluated through simulations in MATLAB and Simulink Software. Other than using the passenger vehicle parameters, the parameters of bus are also tested into the system to investigate the vehicle performance by taking the bumps and road pavements as road disturbances. The results obtained from the simulations show that the responses of the quadratic based approach give the significant improvement in minimizing the vibration and fast settling time compared to passive and PID control.

Impacts of Various High Beam Headlight Intensities on Driver Visibility and Road Safety

J. Prasetijo, Z. Mohd Jawi, M. A. Mustafa, Z. Zadie, H. A. Majid, M. H. Roslan, I. Baba and A. F. H. Zulkifli
pages 306-314

Abstract: Based on several studies, driving above certain speed at night while using low beam headlights has been found to result in insufficient visibility to respond to road hazards. Luckily, vehicle headlight technology has advanced so much and the system is commercially available in many parts of the world. However, the technical development for optimal photometric performance raises a few questions. The use of high beam headlight system creates a glare to drivers of oncoming and preceding vehicles (because of both oncoming headlights and preceding taillights), to the extent that it has become necessary to determine the need to put a limit on the luminous intensity of high-beam headlights. This study shall therefore summarize and investigate visual performance that allows for evaluation of the potential benefits of increased luminous intensity by considering glare rating related to safety. Two different car models; the Proton Prevé and the Perodua Myvi were used in the experiments. The results showed that the highest average illuminance [lux] for single vehicle was 17.5, 7.5, 5.0 and 1.0 for the distances of 30m, 60m, 120m and 150m. However, the average illuminance based on total number of vehicles was 1.0, 0.5, 0.0 and 0.0 at distances of 30m, 60m, 120m and 150m, which were considered below maximum recommended safety level (max. 9.0 – 11.0 lux). The current average vehicle high-beam headlight control was found at the level of acceptable glare control (glare to oncoming and preceding drivers) and below the maximum level of illuminance rate with the normal speed of 40 km/h.

Scene Barrier Effects on Vehicle Deceleration Rate during Primary Accident in a Suburban Area

M. F. H. Rani, S. Abu Bakar, M. S. M. Hashim, A. Harun, Z. M. Razlan, W. K. Wan, I. Zunaidi, I. Ibrahim, M. Afendi, N. E. Efi, Y. Ahmad, M. Dalib and S. S. Mat Rudin
pages 315-323

Abstract: This study uses a simulation of primary accident to investigate the scene barrier effects on vehicle deceleration rate in the suburban area to assess driver behaviour. Several conditions were designed and experimented to determine the capability of scene barrier, which included free flow traffic without an accident, an accident without scene barrier and an accident with scene barrier. The vehicle deceleration rate was investigated by collecting speed-time data in normal traffic zone and rubbernecking zone. Results found that the average vehicle deceleration rate reached as high as – 1.93 km/h/s in rubbernecking zone compared to normal traffic zone (as high as – 0.49 km/h/s) especially when an accident was simulated without the scene barrier. Introduction of scene barrier during the simulated accident improved traffic flow and reduced rubbernecking phenomena by improving the average vehicle deceleration rate in rubbernecking zone by up to 43.0 %. However, sudden deceleration cannot be totally eliminated during the simulated accident with the scene barrier due to driver behaviour. For optimization of braking time during a primary accident, a study of the algorithm of Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) system is necessary.
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The Key Challenges of Implementing E-Learning in Engineering Training Programs

S. Yahaya
pages 324-328

Abstract: Developing an effective e-learning program is a great challenge since there are several tools, technologies and approaches to be considered. Industry pioneers mainly agree that e-learning will continue to become a driving force in the business sector; but apart from the many issues in designing and developing such a program, the industry is also faced with the challenges in overcoming other problems which will be discussed in this article.

Volume 2, Issue 2 (May 2018)

EEV Initiative: Paving the Way for Greener Mobility in Malaysia

M. R. A. Mansor
pages 106-111

Abstract: Some people may wonder what are ‘green vehicles’? ‘Green vehicles’ is defined as Energy Efficient Vehicles (EEV) which produce minimal, if not zero, harmful impact to the environment and have the most efficient power with the lowest fuel consumption. This article discusses the importance of EEV in view of the CO2 emission requirement and shall consider whether Malaysia should have its own driving cycle since many developed countries including Japan, Europe and US have already developed theirs. …

Numerical Simulation of Combustion Behavior of DI Diesel Engine with Conjunction of AMR and Embedding Refinement Strategies

K. Naima, A. Liazid and H. Bousbaa
pages 112-126

Abstract: Currently, computational fluid dynamics has become an effective supplement to experimentation in the analysis and development of various engineering systems including internal combustion engines. In fact, multi-dimensional modelling of IC engines is less extensive and less time consuming than experimentation. In this aim, CONVERGE code was used to study the combustion behavior in a DI engine with various mesh control techniques including embedding and Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). The simulation covers the compression, spray, combustion and expansion. A single spray plume and 1/6th of the combustion cylinder (60 degrees) is simulated. In light of the simulation results it is extremely recommended to use AMR approach in conjunction with embedding around the nozzle for running engine simulations.

Damping Behaviour of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grafting on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Friction Material

N. K. Konada and K. N. S. Suman
pages 127-140

Abstract: An automobile’s braking system plays an important role to control the vehicle at various operating speeds. At present, the brake friction industry is mainly focused on effectiveness of braking in addition to aesthetic considerations of an automobile. In this research, carbon fiber reinforced friction material is developed by grafting multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized (MWCNTS-F) on CF surface. The surface of CF is basically chemically inert and hydrophobic in nature and needs to be modified by grafting MWCNTS-F on its surface to increase hydroxyl or carboxyl groups. An attempt is made to improve the bonding strength between CF, polymer matrix and the remaining ingredients. Carbon fiber content after surface modification is varied in weight percentor wt% (2%, 3%, 4% and 5%) and mixed with the remaining ingredients of friction material. Composite sheets are prepared using hand lay-up method and characterized for damping, SEM, TGA and FTIR analysis. It is observed that MWCNTS-F grafted on CF 3 wt% possess good damping results. The results also reveal that, optimum selection of ingredients and surface treatment method on CF is the main reason for improvement of the composite’s interfacial adhesion and damping behavior.

Riding Hazards and Crash Risks Facing Malaysian Courier Riders in the Last Mile Delivery

M. K. A. Ibrahim, A. A. Ab Rashid, Z. Mohd Jawi and H. Mohamed Jamil
pages 141-150

Abstract: This study aims to determine the types of hazards and crash risks facing courier riders during delivery trips by recording the riding scenarios on their actual delivery route. A digital camera and a hands-free camera harness were used to hold the camera at the chest level to record the riding scenarios. Fifteen courier riders in the Klang Valley, Malaysia participated in the study. The final analysis reveals that a courier rider encounters 30 hazardous riding events and 5 near misses on average for each hour of delivery trips. Two-thirds of all hazardous riding events were instigated by road users, including the participants themselves. Interestingly, the participants’ own riding behaviours contributed to almost a third (29%) of the total near misses. Obstruction of view was found to increase the odds of causing a near miss by 4.61 times compared to hazards related to driving behaviours of other motorists. Further, incidents related to lane changing or overtaking manoeuvres were found to have 7.81 times higher odds of causing a near miss compared to incidents related to braking or sudden stopping. The classification of hazards and risk assessment presented in this study should be seriously considered for better operation management and defensive driving training.

Authorised Service Centre vs General Workshop: Consumers’ Preference of Car Maintenance

M. A. F. Abdul Wahab, M. F. Ibrahim and M. H. Mohd Latif
pages 151-156

Abstract: There are more issues surrounding general workshops (GWs) compared to authorised service centres (SCs) especially concerning consumerism. Regardless, GWs still hold equal market share and have sustained their businesses. This article discusses car users’ preference of maintenance involving SCs and GWs. Additionally, current government initiatives and the future of automotive workshops in Malaysia are also discussed.

Effects of Fuel Ratio on Performance and Emission of Diesel-Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Dual Fuel Engine

M. M. Ismail, M. Fawzi, F. H. Zulkifli and S. A. Osman
pages 157-165

Abstract: Recent research breakthrough reveals that diesel-CNG dual fuel (DDF) combustion can potentially reduce exhaust emission of internal combustion engines. However, problem arises when knock phenomenon occurs producing high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission due to uncontrolled blending ratio of diesel-CNG fuel on specific engine load. This study will determine the limit of dual fuel ratio before knock occurrence while analysing performance and exhaust emission of an engine operating with diesel and DDF fuel mode. A 2.5 litre 4-cylinder direct injection common-rail diesel engine was utilised as a test platform. The models tested were 100% Diesel, 90% DDF, 80% DDF and 70% DDF, representing diesel to CNG mass ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 respectively. It was found that DDF engine performance was lower compared to diesel engine at 1500 rpm engine speed. At higher engine speed, the 70% DDF showed engine performance comparable to diesel engine. However, high HC emission with knock onset and a decrease of Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) emission were recorded. This study suggests the preferred limit of dual fuel ratio should not be lower than 70% DDF which will be able to operate at high engine speed without the occurrence of knock and poor exhaust emission.

Vision-based Lane Departure Warning System

N. S. Ahmad Rudin, Y. Mohd. Mustafah, Z. Zainal Abidin, J. Cho, H. F. Mohd. Zaki, N. N. W. Nik Hashim and H. Abdullah Rahman
pages 166-176

Abstract: Vision-based Lane Departure Warning System (LDW) is a promising tool to avoid road accidents. In practice, it is exceptionally hard to accurately and efficiently detect lanes due a variety of complex noise such as environmental variability. However, image processing techniques have shown promising and reliable outcome in detecting lanes during non- ideal conditions. Lane detection and lane departure measurement are two important modules in LDW system. This paper explores the gaps and limitations of the existing method in the past 10 years concerning lane detection and departure warning for LDW system.

Preparation of Biodiesel from Hibiscus sabdariffa Seeds Oil using Calcium Oxide Catalyst from Waste Egg Shells

K. Hasni, A. Nabi, M. Varman and Z. Ilham
pages 177-183

Abstract: The aim of this study is to optimize the transesterification process for conversion of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed oils (HSO) into biodiesel. Conversion of HSO into biodiesel were obtained at optimum parameters of methanol to oil ratio 6:1, temperature 67.5oC, 1% calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst derived from waste egg shells and agitation speed of 750 rpm. The yield achieved was 95.01%. The results showed that all of the fuel properties such as kinematic viscosity 4.55 mm2/s acid value 0.027 mg KOH/g, cloud point 3oC, pour point 1oC, flash point 161oC, cetane index 49 min and density 856 kg/m3 of the Hibiscus sabdariffa methyl esters (HSME), are in compliance within the range of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard specifications except for oxidation stability which was at 3.48 hours. The results suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa seed oil could be a potential feedstock for biodiesel.

The Use of Safety Warning Triangle Among Malaysian Private Vehicle Users

M. S. Abdul Khalid, Z. Mohd Jawi, M. H. Md Isa, M. S. Solah, A. Hamzah, N. F. Paiman, A. H. Ariffin and M. R. Osman
pages 184-198

Abstract: The Safety Warning Triangle (SWT) is a device to alert other road users on the hazard ahead. Currently, SWT usage in Malaysia is only mandatory for commercial vehicles. Therefore, this study aims to assess private vehicle (PV) users’ knowledge and perception of SWT, and include a feasibility study to make SWT mandatory for PV. A total of 447 respondents answered an online survey and results show that almost 50% of PV users did not have clear understanding of SWT usage in terms of its practicality, even though 97% of them agreed on the necessity to use SWT if they face any emergency situation whilst on the road. Therefore, more initiatives including awareness campaigns and educational programs on the proper use of SWT are needed. As for the ideal SWT usage in Malaysia, after considering all the factors found in the review of international practices on SWT usage, two recommendations are proposed by the authors: (1) a similar concept applied in Japan to be referred to and implemented in Malaysia; (2) continue the current practices in Malaysia and to include private vehicles in the mandatory list.

Applying Subjective Measures to Evaluate Sitting Discomfort: Pertinent Research and Recent Developments

N. K. Khamis, B. Md. Deros and M. S. Abdul Khalid
pages 199-219

Abstract: One of the key considerations when sitting particularly for a long period of time, either in the office chair or car seat is comfort. Studies have revealed a high number of reports regarding discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders while sitting in a fixed position. The main objective of this study is to review past and present subjective assessment in published studies in the area of sitting discomfort and find the gap between each study to be applied in future studies. Fifty relevant studies were identified and chosen from electronic databases, dating as far back as 1969. “Seat”, “chair”, “sit”, “comfort”, “discomfort” and “assessment” were the keyword search terms for this paper. Past studies demonstrated numerous purposes and techniques of analysing sitting discomfort. They provide better understanding for both researchers and the industry to deal with sitting discomfort issues. Various assessment methods have also been applied in the previous studies. However, they are still areas found in past studies that need to be investigated. Therefore, it is proposed that another assessment is performed to analyse sitting discomfort, by exploring issues derived from this review.

Volume 2, Issue 1 (Jan 2018)

Driving Green Economy for Malaysia through Green Technology and Green Culture

M. A. Zainul Abidin
Editorial
pages 2-4

Abstract: In the world we live in today, issues of climate change and the need for sustainable solutions have become more prominent. During the agreement reached in Paris in December 2015, the world was unanimous on what needed to be done while the clock was ticking. Under such an agreement, every country shall implement its own five-year climate action plan in a bid to ratchet up ambition levels. Developed countries vowed to provide significant amount of money as well as technical support to help under-developed countries cut down on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to climate change. …

A Study on the Use and Misuse of Child Restraint System (CRS) in Malaysia

N. F. Paiman, B. Md. Deros, A. Hamzah, D. W. Kak, M. S. Solah and Y. Ahmad
pages 5-13

Abstract: In car crashes, children are more likely to suffer more severe injuries than adults. For prevention, Child Restraint System (CRS) is normally used. However, inappropriate use of CRS may exacerbate injury risks. This research aims to determine the prevalence of CRS use and misuse among car owners, especially those travelling with children aged 11 years and below. A total of 178 parents were interviewed and 267 children were observed. Overall, only 12.7% children were properly restrained in CRS for their size, with the correct installation and appropriate seating position. Prior to CRS law implementation, initiatives such as awareness campaigns, community based programs and CRS clinics should be introduced.

A Study on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Pump System Performance using Model-Based Simulation

A. Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, M. F. Muhamad Said, A. Abdul Aziz, V. Esfahanian, M. R. Ahmad Baker, M. R. Mohd Perang and H. Mohd Jamil
pages 14-22

Abstract: This paper focuses on a simulation study of a newly developed high-pressure fuel pump system for small engine. When an engine is operated at high speed in a typical Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) system, its pump will perform extra pumping requiring continuous engine work. Because it is driven by the engine’s camshaft, the extra pumping action is both unavoidable and parasitic. In this study, a new GDI pump has been designed and built to only operate at a constant speed, regardless of engine load and speed. The pump is driven by an electric motor via a camshaft and is intended for a four-stroke, 0.2 litre, single-cylinder, spark ignition engine. The electric motor is governed by a control unit called the Engine Control Unit (ECU). The GDI pump will supply fuel to a rail up to its maximum pressure capacity. The pump is developed in accordance with a physical model-based design approach and is simulated using Matlab- SimscapeTM. Based on the calculation and simulation performed, the designed pump pressure is capable of producing discharge exceeding 4.5 MPa. Theoretical calculation also shows that the pressure developed by the pump reaches 10.54 MPa when a two lobe cam is used. In addition, the pressure developed by the pump is recorded to be 11.15 MPa, with an error of 5.8 % when a similar condition is applied to the physical modelling.

Modelling and Simulation of Powertrain System for Electric Car

S. M. E. Fadul, I. B. Aris, N. Misron, I. A. Halin and A. K. M. Iqbal
pages 23-34

Abstract: It is widely believed that electric cars hold the key toward a greener mode of transport in the wake of an increased global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. However, on the downside, electric vehicles suffer from limited drive range and insufficient battery pack energy. Due to limited energy storage, effective power utility and energy efficiency are regarded as important for battery powered automobiles. To increase energy saving and provide better electric motor efficiency of an electric car, control algorithms such as field-oriented control strategy and space vector modulation can be used. This paper presents a study using Matlab/Simulink on vehicle parameters based on modelling and simulation of an electric car dynamics when integrated with an induction motor powered by Li-ion battery. It shall also describe a modelling of the electric powertrain leading to an analysis of on-board-to- wheel energy conversion. To achieve the model goals, the vehicle powertrain was simulated and the results further confirmed that both vehicle torque and speed correlate with an electric car acceleration index.

Determining Characteristics and Engine Emission of Steam Generated Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel

M. F. H. Mohd Zahari, D. A. Sugeng, W. J. Yahya and A. M. Ithnin
pages 35-42

Abstract: Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (W/D) is an effective method for reducing emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a diesel engine. However, the current approach of producing W/D has its disadvantages in terms of cost and complexity. Therefore, a new approach to produce W/D is developed where water is introduced in vapour state, instead of as liquid, into the fuel. This new method may simplify the emulsion production process as it requires less mechanical parts than any previous non- surfactant emulsion forming methods. The objective of this study is to determine the physical characteristics of steam generated W/D and its engine emission. The characteristics to be determined include the size distribution of water droplets as well as water content. Engine emission will be measured from a 5 kW single cylinder, direct injected, air cooled diesel engine.

Vehicle Localization Using Wheel Speed Sensor (WSS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)

W. M. H. Wan Azree, M. A. Abdul Rahman and H. Zamzuri
pages 43-59

Abstract: The advent of autonomous driving has led researchers toward a whole new technological age where vehicle positioning and localization system form the back bone of an autonomous electric vehicle. However, localization becomes poor as a vehicle enters GPS-denied areas due to multi path errors. Autonomous vehicle, in addition, needs to be localized from time to time and be guided on the right path along its destination. The purpose of this study is to overcome the problem of adopting an alternative method by using the vehicle’s Wheel Speed Sensor (WSS) for localization. WSS as an auxiliary sensor is attached to the vehicle’s wheel to track its position upon considering its travelling speed in a period of time. This is done in such a way that the existence of obscured portion along the guideway will be neglected. The data obtained from WSS are combined with yaw rate from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) through Kinematic Modelling algorithm and then be converted to get the local position coordinates. In order to analyse whether the yaw rate produced by IMU is acceptable or not, comparison with simulation is needed. A Bicycle Model is used to generate simulated yaw rate from the steering angle of the vehicle and Kalman Filter estimates the simulated yaw rate to be close with the raw yaw rate. Therefore, this will clarify that the yaw rate obtained from IMU is acceptable and that true localization path is generated.

Monotonous Driving Environment along Highway and Driver Behaviour in Malaysia: A Review

M. Zainon, M. Zaly Shah, M. A. Chiroma and M. A. Kafi
pages 60-74

Abstract: Driver alertness, behaviour, and performance are central aspects of road traffic safety to achieve sustainable mobility. In addition, the type of environment where mobility occurs tend to affect drivers. Typically, monotonous stretches along highway deteriorate drivers’ vigilance thus leading to fatigue, drowsiness, and even crashes. Based on extensive review of related literature, this paper shall present the various issues of monotonous driving environment, countermeasures, as well as related research in Malaysia, aside from highway landscaping and other fatigue related road safety issues. Despite the significant amount of research on such issues, due to the current development trend and the highly motorised nature of Malaysia, there is need for more robust research especially in terms of countermeasure improvement and appraisal as well as development of monotony effect indices.

Motorcycles ‘keep left’ order: Is it viable?

A. Hamzah, M. S. Solah and N. F. Paiman
pages 75-79

Abstract: Motorcyclists swerving in and out of lanes and in between lines of vehicles contribute to traffic conflicts thus creating unnecessary risk of collision. Keeping their travels in dedicated lanes (‘keep left’ order) as much as possible, may perhaps increase their safety on the road and consequently help reduce road deaths and injuries in Malaysia.

A Study on Gender and Vehicle Use in Relation to Awareness and Attitude toward Festive Season OPS

N. A. Mohamad
pages 80-91

Abstract: This paper shall examine the role of gender and type of vehicle most frequently used by road users (car and motorcycle) in relation to their awareness and attitude towards traffic enforcement. These two factors, namely role of gender and vehicle type, have not been fully understood especially in the context of enforcement efforts. The study includes analysis of survey data from a perception study on OPS Raya Aidilfitri 2016 traffic enforcement during festive season. Nonparametric testing and mean analysis were performed to determine any association between gender and vehicle with visibility (awareness) and attitude toward enforcement activities. The findings suggest that road users specifically car drivers and motorcyclists moderately agree with the effectiveness of such enforcement efforts. Male respondents and car drivers were considerably more aware of enforcement activities compared to female respondents and motorcyclists. In addition, females were found to be more favourable in their attitude towards enforcement compared to males. Gender and vehicle use significantly influenced road users’ awareness and attitude to enforcement. Thus, the authority and agencies involved in traffic enforcement should consider strategies to incorporate these variables in order to increase effectiveness of enforcement efforts. For instance, enforcers may consider placing enforcement signage and conduct roadside checks in more strategic locations to increase visibility to road users.

Evaluating Risk Factors in Motorcycle-Passenger Car Crashes through Real-World Investigation

A. N. S. Zainal Abidin, N. A. Abdul Jalil, S. V. Wong and C. Y. Tan
pages 92-105

Abstract: The study analyses 55 real world crashes involving motorcycles with passenger cars through on-the-spot crash investigation. Analysis was performed based on input gathered during vehicle damage assessment, crash site inspection and injury information provided by the treating hospital. Through the analysis performed, the data revealed that weekday crashes mostly occurred during morning period while weekend crashes were more prevalent at night. Crashes occurring during weekends were less likely to occur between 06:00 until 11:59 and 6.125 times more likely to occur during the night period (18:00 – 23:59). Most of the motorcycle – passenger vehicle crashes investigated involved situations whereby both the vehicles were travelling in the same direction, with one of the vehicle in turning manoeuvre. Moreover, 61.8% of the investigated crashes occurred when the passenger vehicles were at fault. The data revealed 28.7% of the involved riders suffered injuries to lower extremities, followed by head and neck injuries at 25%. In terms of injury severity of the involved riders, odds ratio value reveals that side impact, compared to other types of crash configuration were 3.750 times more likely to result in MAIS 3 and above. The result also proved that impact speed has a significant effect on the injury severity of the riders. MAIS level 2 and below injury severities were over presented for the lower range impact speeds while an adverse trend was observed for the higher range impact speeds.

Volume 1, Issue 3 (Sep 2017)

Buckle Up! A Nudge for Car Occupant Safety

M. H. Md Isa, S. B. Mohd Tamrin and Z. Mohd Jawi
pages 179-182

Abstract: The seatbelt remains one of the most effective solutions in reducing vehicle occupants’ injuries in road crashes. Nevertheless, achieving a high compliance rate in Malaysia, where the situation of not buckling up is glaringly evident among rear passengers, still poses a great challenge. On another note, despite manufacturers’ countermeasure to introduce the Seatbelt Reminder (SBR) system, some users still find ways to flout the system by using fake clips.

Evaluation of Charge-Discharge Characteristic of Lithium Cobalt Nickel Manganese Oxide for High– Energy Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

P. M.W. Salehen, H. Razali, K. Sopian, T. K. Lee and M. S. Su’ait
pages 183-190

Abstract: The development of suitable cathode materials of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for energy storage towards improving the performance of LIBs in order to meet the increasing demand globally is one of the challenges. This paper investigates the charge-discharge characteristic for lithium ion batteries developed focusing on cathode materials of LiNiCoMnO2 (NCM) – layered structured material with lithium anode. It also discusses the characteristic features of charge-discharge profile, optimized charge-end voltage as well as discharged limit voltage with a constant current C-rate with 0.1C, 0.3C and 0.5C. The coin cells were fabricated in a glove box full of argon gas using those cathode and anode with separator and organic electrolyte (1M LiPF6, EC: DEC 1:1). The performance of charge-discharge test was conducted with NEWARE tester equipment BTS 3000. This includes obtaining experimental data charge- discharge and power capacity to improve the performance of battery. Thus it is reported that charge-discharge characteristic of LNCM material is important to be analysed for LIBs. The parameter attained is vital and necessary enhancement work for the resolution of optimization BMS simulation.

Transmission of Vibration from Motorcycle Handlebar to the Hand

J. M. Noh, K. A. M. Rezali, A. As’arry and N. A. A. Jalil
pages 191-197

Abstract: Vibration transmitted to the hand from motorcycle handlebar can cause discomfort and health issues to the motorcycle rider. The objective of this paper was to investigate the severity of vibration transmitted to the hand from motorcycle handlebar. The engine capacity of the motorcycle was 100cc. Vibration was recorded at the motorcycle handlebar at two engine speeds representing the speed of 10km/h and 20km/h. The total magnitudes of vibrations (weighted Wh) transmitted to the hand from motorcycle handlebar were between 2 and 6.42m/s2. Increasing the speed of the motorcycle engine decreased the vibration magnitude transmitted to the hand. The level of vibration exposure can be greater than the Daily Action Limit Value set by the European Directive 2002/44/EC if the motorcycle is used for more than 4.15 hours per day at the speed of 10km/h.

Single Camera Object Detection for Self-Driving Vehicle: A Review

S. Herman and K. Ismail
pages 198-207

Abstract: The development of technologies for autonomous vehicle (AV) have seen rapid achievement in the recent years. Commercial carmakers are actively embedding this system in their production and are undergoing tremendous testing in the real world traffic environment. It is one of today’s most challenging topics in the intelligent transportation system (ITS) field in term of reliability as well as accelerating the world’s transition to a sustainable future. The utilization of current sensor technology however indicates some drawbacks where the complexity is high and the cost is extremely huge. This paper reviews the recent sensor technologies and their contributions in becoming part of the autonomous self-driving vehicle system. The ultimate focus is toward reducing the sensor count to just a single camera based on the single modality model. The capability of the sensor to detect and recognize on-the-road obstacles such as overtaking vehicle, pedestrians, signboards, bicycle, road lane marker and road curvature will be discussed. Different feature extraction approach will be reviewed further with the selection of the recent Artificial Intelligent (AI) methods that are being implemented. At the end of this review, the optimal techniques of processing information from single camera system will be discussed and summarized.

Assessing Elements of Walkability in Women’s Mobility

Y. A. S. Harumain, N. F. Azmi and S. M. Yusoff
pages 208-215

Abstract: Inclusivity and equality in the context of women’s mobility has recently gained attention. This is due to the increased demands of women travelling with either private vehicles or public transportation. Inclusivity and equality planning is more than just providing women’s coaches, special pregnant women seats, and women-only lines in public transportation. Walkability, as one of the most important keywords for mobility, must be enhanced by excellent walking conditions and facilities that are inclusive and equal. In this context, walking for women often relates to the issue of safety and security in addition to accessibility and connectivity. This paper describes different groups of women with divergent perceptions of safety reasons and security. Through the questionnaire survey we have establish a significant relationship between distance and the nature of activity regarding reasons for women walking to the LRT stations.

System Integration in a Through-the-Road, In-Wheel Motor Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using FPGA-Based CompactRIO and LabVIEW

S. A. M. Zulkifli, M. H. Hamdan, N. Saad and A. R. A. Aziz
pages 216-227

Abstract: A through-the-road (TTR) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a sub-type of the parallel hybrid, in which the internal combustion engine (ICE) and electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles. TTR architecture allows for hybrid conversion of an existing vehicle using in- wheel motors (IWM), as alternative to on-board motor. Operation requires different types of signals to be acquired and processed: hardwire low- voltage analog signals, digital pulse-train and CAN-bus signals. This work discusses system integration in a TTR hybrid: motor controller, engine control unit (ECU) and energy management system (EMS), using FPGA- based CompactRIO controller. The EMS needs to generate an enhanced throttle signal to the ECU – bypassing the original signal from the throttle position sensor – to gain control of the internal combustion engine for proper hybrid operation.

Modelling and PID Value Search for Antilock Braking System (ABS) of a Passenger Vehicle

M. M. Abdul Majid, S. A. Abu Bakar, S. Mansor, M. K. Abdul Hamid and N. H. Ismail
pages 228-236

Abstract: This paper presents the methodologies use in determining the PID value of an Antilock Brake System (ABS) of a Malaysian made passenger vehicle. The research work involves experimental work for data acquisitions, development of braking model, parameter tuning for both simulation model parameter and PID values search. A Malaysian made car is equipped with instrumentation used to collect vehicle behaviour during normal and hard braking manoeuvres. The data collected are the vehicle’s stopping distance and longitudinal speed. The data during the normal braking are used to validate a two degree of freedom (2 DOF) of vehicle’s braking model, while the data collected during the hard braking are used to search for the PID value used to control the operation of the ABS system. The developed simulation model of a braking system correlates well with the experimental data and the tuning done on the PID algorithm indicates that the ABS is controlled by the PI system.

The Opportunities and Challenges Overview: Implementing Performance Based Standards Regulation for High Capacity Passenger Vehicle in Malaysia

M. S. Osmin, J. M. Diah and S. M. Sharif
pages 237-250

Abstract: Road accidents involving heavy commercial passenger vehicle (HCPV) in Malaysia have always been in the spotlight and various efforts have been taken with much attention given on operational issues. At present, the weight and dimensions of HCPV in Malaysia generally regulated under prescriptive standards regulations which do not provide clear safety outcomes and often limits the flexibility about how to achieve it. This paper provides an overview of opportunities and challenges of implementing Performance Based Standards (PBS) regulation for HCPV vehicle in Malaysia based on the Australian PBS regulation implementation for heavy vehicle. It was found that Tail Swing, Braking Efficiency and Maximum Stable Inclination Angle under the existing regulation have or partly met the PBS approach. The opportunities for implementing PBS regulation were explained in terms of the possibility adopting PBS approaches in the existing regulation and second, the institutional readiness to develop and implement it. However, challenges were expected, for example increase in cost of vehicle’s assessment. Implementing PBS regulation for HCPV in Malaysia will provide various benefits such as increase productivity, efficiency and most importantly safety.

Simulation of Vehicle Steering Angle and Lateral Acceleration in Mitigating Potential Run-Off-Road Crashes

D. M. Cham, M. Shanmugavel and V. R. Sampathkumar
pages 251-261

Abstract: This paper proposes and presents the preliminary results of an integrated safety warning system for road vehicles based on lateral g-force monitoring. The proposed system issues a warning to the driver when the lateral load increases above a threshold level thereby reducing the risk of run-off-road crashes and loss of control. From the vehicles dynamic model, soft and hard speed limits are obtained. When the soft limit is breached, it warns the driver using a LED, and when the hard limit is breached, assistive braking is activated. Simulations were conducted to obtain the safe vehicle speed for various steering angle to ensure the lateral g-force remains in the range of 0.7 and 0.9. Vehicle parameters of the Proton Saga 1.3L were used for simulation. Simulation runs to study the effects of changes in steering-wheel angle and vehicle speed on the variation of lateral acceleration was performed, based on which a safe speed is obtained. Simulations were also conducted on both banked and unbanked roads. The results of this study would help in the design of a working prototype of the safety system.

Private Vehicle Roadworthiness in Malaysia from the Vehicle Inspection Perspective

M. S. Solah, A. Hamzah, A. H. Ariffin, N. F. Paiman, I. Abdul Hamid, M. A. F. Abdul Wahab, Z. Mohd Jawi and M. R. Osman
pages 262-271

Abstract: Vehicle defect is one of the contributing factors of road mishaps, although the magnitude of the problem is less prominent compared to human behaviour or road environment factors. What is more important is that this technical problem may find a more direct solution as opposed to human behavioural issues. This study aims to discuss common vehicle defects that probably contribute to road crashes by using Periodical Technical Inspection (PTI) database as the basis. Data was analysed to determine common failures of private passenger vehicles based on selected inspections and vehicle types. At this stage, only voluntary and routine inspections were scrutinized. In addition, this study is able to predict the probability of a vehicle failure by using information from the database. From such an analysis, it was found that the two most common private passenger vehicle defects were worn out tire (or lack of tread) and structural integrity. It was also found that vehicles sent for voluntary inspection have a higher probability of failure compared to those sent for routine inspection.

How the Market Reacts to NCAP in Emerging Countries?

K. A. Abu Kassim, A. Furas and S. Mustaffa
pages 272-276

Abstract: This paper shall discuss three New Car Assessment Programs (NCAPs) in different emerging markets. Each program faces its own challenges, with different issues to be addressed and strategy worked out for OEMs, in order to benefit vehicle consumers. Two key success factors to ensure an NCAP’s effectiveness in keeping consumers well informed about vehicle safety levels in an emerging market include: (i) a capable strategic and technical team; and (ii) dynamic safety requirements in a voluntary or mandatory environment.

Volume 1, Issue 2 (May 2017)

Paying Big Bucks for Cool Number Plates

Z. Mohd Jawi and M. H. Md Isa
pages 82-85

Abstract: In Malaysia, vehicle registration number is seen as a symbol of social status, which subsequently becomes an article of trade among vehicle owners due to the high value of certain “cool” numbers. Although such affection cannot be generalized to the whole community; some parties are willing to pay exorbitant price for certain number plates thus giving easy revenue for the government.

Engine-Compatible Biodiesel from Leucaena leucocephala Seed Oil

M. I. Hakimi, Khalilullah, F. Goembira and Z. Ilham
pages 86-93

Abstract: Leucaena leucocephala (petai belalang) seed oil has been studied previously as a feedstock for biodiesel but no study describes its fuel properties for use in diesel engine. In this study, hexane was used to extract oil from the seeds of Leucaena leucocephala in a Soxhlet apparatus. Chemical properties of the oil were then analysed which demonstrated a relatively high FFA content of 6.0wt%, requiring the two- step method for biodiesel production through an acid-catalyzed esterification followed by alkali-catalyzed transesterification. Physico- chemical properties of the processed biodiesel such as triglyceride, diglyceride, monoglyceride, free glycerol, methanol content, ester content, carbon residue, acid value, oxidation stability, tocopherol concentration, iodine value, water content, kinematic viscosity, density, pour point, cloud point, cold filter plugging point and flash point were analysed. The obtained biodiesel showed high oxidation stability and most fuel properties complied with two international standards, European Standards (EN14214) and American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM D6751).

An Observational Study on Speeding among Malaysian Express Bus Drivers

M. S. Ahmad, Z. H. Zulkipli, W. Ameer Batcha, N. F. Paiman, S. A. Mohd Faudzi, I. Othman and M. R. Osman
pages 94-102

Abstract: Accidents involving express buses in Malaysia tend to attract a lot of local media attention. Based on statistics from the Royal Malaysia Police (RMP), express buses recorded the highest percentage of total bus crashes during the 3-year period from 2007 to 2009. In this study, data were collected from three different festive seasons in Malaysia with express bus drivers’ behaviour being the main focus. Express buses and the journey they took were randomly selected regardless of the express bus company. Data collected from observations were analysed with respect to ‘speeding’. Findings of this study reveal that drivers were more likely to exceed the posted speed limit during night-time. Smoking and eating while driving were significantly associated with speeding. The study suggests that further efforts aimed at reducing risky bus driver behaviour demand critical consideration and actions from relevant enforcement agencies and stakeholders. In addition, express bus operators are encouraged to monitor the risky driving behaviour of drivers using suitable monitoring system..

Factors, Effects, and Preferences on Vehicle Driving Modification for the Malaysia Independent Disabled Driver

M. K. A. M. Dahuri, M. N. Hussain, N. F. M. Yusof and M. K. A. Jalil
pages 103-110

Abstract: Assistive driving was known to be the important aspect in addressing the mobility limitation, particularly for a person with disabilities. Assistive product modification for vehicle driving, ranging from hand control, secondary control, foot control, and also the wheelchair assisted vehicle developed towards addressing the driving limitation differences according to a person types of disabilities. A pilot survey was conducted to 50 Malaysia independent drivers in Kuala Lumpur. The components evaluated during the survey include, types of modification used, aspects influencing the vehicle modification decision, problem occurrence when in use, as well as to understand the preferential decision differences. The Likert scale (1 to 5) will be used as the rate score given by the responses for each question within the component in the survey. The survey was used as the approach to gather the responses from the respondent. From the survey, it was discovered that aspect such as the disability condition, safer driving, and information availability are several major factors influencing the driver to make modification for independent driving purposes. The major factors were also discovered to influence the modification origin as preferences for driving assistance. The certain least important factors such as the involved body part movement limitation and price range must not be ignored as they also contribute to the improvement for the independent disabled driving.

Towards Autonomous Vehicle Implementation: Issues and Opportunities

H. H. Hashim and M. Z. Omar
pages 111-123

Abstract: This paper highlights the factors that should be addressed by any countries when considering Autonomous Vehicle (AV) implementation, along with issues and opportunities that may arise. AV is an emerging technology that has far-reaching applications and implications beyond all current expectations. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the relevant literatures and explores a broad spectrum of readiness factors, issues and opportunities in the aspects of legislations, litigation, liability, road and surrounding infrastructures, map availability, public acceptance, privacy and public perceptions. While the intention of AV implementation may be driven to address several road safety and road efficiency issues, the traffic mix between AV and non-AV at its initial stage of implementation may introduce a negative impact towards the overall road safety and traffic operations. A systematic framework in adopting and implementing the technology should therefore be established to ensure its objectives are met. This paper contributes to the literature on the fronts that it attempts to shed light on future opportunities as well as possible issues associated with AV implementation; and provide an overall guidance on fundamental factors to be considered before implementing AV.

A Techno-Economical and Automotive Emissions Impact Study of Global Biodiesel Usage in Diesel Engines

J.-H. Ng, J. X. Teh, K. Y. Wong, K. H. Wu and C. T. Chong
pages 124-136

Abstract: In recent years, biodiesel has arrived at the forefront, as a mainstream alternative energy, due to its advantages properties such as renewability, compatibility with existing automotive infrastructures and diesel engines, cleaner emissions. Many studies have been conducted to improve the maturity of biodiesel production technology, and fuel application. However, the global-scale economical and emissions impacts of first generation biodiesel is still not being adequately addressed. This requires immediate attention as the current economical setback for biodiesel is affected by low crude oil price. In this study, the correlations between the biodiesel production feasibility, crude oil price, and feedstock availability are defined. By using a data-driven predictive model, insights can be drawn for the worldwide profitability, potential level of diesel replacement using biodiesel, and environmental impact. The model allows prediction to be done on potential biodiesel production at a country-region level, at different crude oil prices and fuel blending ratios. It was also predicted that up to 9% of total global diesel consumption could be replaced by profitable biodiesel, if crude oil price rises up to USD 135 per barrel and factoring in refinery cost of USD 0.05 per litre. Countries near the equatorial belt with abundance palm oil feedstock such as Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia could potentially augment their gross domestic products by 10.36%, 7.67% and 5.57%, respectively. If all non- domestic usage feedstock is converted into biodiesel for automotive usage, there will be conclusive reduction of engine-out emissions such as unburnt hydrocarbons and particulate matter. Ultimately, this model proves that there is high potential for mass adoption of biodiesel to supplant fossil diesel globally, allowing the generation of income, improving energy security and produces cleaner automotive emissions.

Comparative Analysis of Motorcycle Braking Performance in Emergency Situation

A. H. Ariffin, A. Hamzah, M. S. Solah, N. F. Paiman, Z. Mohd Jawi and M. H. Md Isa
pages 124-136

Abstract: This study was conducted to assess motorcycle braking performance in simulated emergency situation. Braking distances and G- force values (peak) during the braking test of 6 distinct underbone motorcycles of 100-150cc were measured and compared based on different test conditions namely type of brake system (disc and drum), method of braking operation (front and rear brakes) and test load (rider only and rider with pillion). The results indicate that type of braking system and method of braking operation significantly influenced braking distance and G-force value. However, test load was found insignificant. The shortest braking distance and highest deceleration rate were 12.48 meters and 8.52 m/s2, respectively. The lowest G-force value (peak) was recorded 0.39 throughout the test. It is to be noted that this study is unique on its own due to certain limitations although some of the methods were adopted from the established international braking test standards. Even though this study is considered fundamental, the findings could provide vital information on the braking performance of underbone motorcycles especially to the motorcycle manufacturers and OEMs, as well as to the relevant authorities (driving institutes and Road Transport Department).

Automotive Consumerism in Malaysia with Regard to Car Maintenance

M. A. F. Abdul Wahab, Z. Mohd Jawi, I. Abdul Hamid, M. S. Solah, M. H. Mohd Latif, M. H. Md Isa, M. S. Abdul Khalid, A. H. Ariffin and A. Hamzah
pages 137-153

Abstract: This paper aims to review relevant legal framework, statistics, news reports and findings from the ‘automotive ecosystem’ study by MIROS relating to car maintenance issues in Malaysia. The automotive consumerism data mainly comes from the Road Transport Department (RTD), Ministry of Domestic Trade, Co-operatives and Consumerism (MDTCC) and National Consumer Complaints Centre (NCCC), in addition to news articles via web search. In summary, there are several laws and legislations involving various authorities which can be utilised to safeguard automotive consumers ranging from before car registration, during car ownership up to de-registration of the car. Based on the statistics and news reports, car maintenance complaints mostly involved motor vehicle workshop and parts, accessories as well as vehicles. With respect to motor vehicle workshop, quality of repair received the highest number of complaints in NCCC report in 2015 (51.1%), while sales service and manufacturing defects were the main issues in the parts, accessories and vehicles category (22.5% and 21.4% respectively). In regard to car users’ behaviour in Klang Valley (500 respondents) and Kuching (300 respondents), a majority of them chose to bring their cars for maintenance either to authorised service centre or general car workshops, instead of performing the maintenance themselves or alternating between the available options. Most car users’ agreed on the importance of scheduled maintenance according to manufacturer recommendation and performing maintenance at general car workshops. However, they are unsure of the quality, in addition to maintenance and retrofitting behaviour.

Crash Investigation on Automobile vs. Crash Barrier: Assessment of W-Beam Guardrail with respect to REAM Standard

I. Abdul Hamid, S. T. M. Syed Tajul Arif, N. S. Mohd Zulkiffli, R. Sarani, M. S. Solah and M. R. Osman
pages 154-165

Abstract: Road traffic crashes involving longitudinal traffic safety barriers, especially W-beam guardrails, are not uncommon. This shows the importance of the guardrails in performing its functions. In Malaysia, installation of the guardrails are according to a guideline published by REAM in 2006. However, the compliance of the barriers installation to the standards can be further verified to ensure its quality and integrity. Site survey on the barriers shows that compliance to the standards are high if it is installed and maintained under the concession, e.g. by PLUS Expressways Berhad. However, there are some issues concerning installation of barriers if it is under custodian of local authorities. The parameters used to measure the compliance, among others, are installation ground condition, overlapping, post height, post spacing, clear zone, guardrail conditions and sub-standards installation. It is suggested to the local authorities to give more emphasis on the inspection of existing barriers, as well as maintenance and replacement of barriers. This is because the barriers will not perform according to its function as it is intended under non-reliable conditions. The outcomes of this study will provide the road transport related agencies on the real conditions of W- beam guardrails installed on roads in Malaysia.

Benefit Mapping of Anti-Lock Braking System for Motorcycles from India to Indonesia

G. Kumaresh, T. Lich, A. Skiera and J. Moennich
pages 166-178

Abstract: Around 1.3 million people die every year on the world’s roads of which 285,200 are users of motorised two or three wheelers. In Indonesia, the number of traffic accidents has also increased by an average of 13% annually (2009-2013). This leads to socio-economic loss of approximately 255,864 million rupiah (Rp). The European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist (Powered Two Wheeler – PTW) being involved in a fatal accident is 20 times greater compared to a car driver travelling along the same route. This research reveals interesting facts about the Indonesian PTW accident situation through mapping the benefit of Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) for PTWs from India to Indonesia – although there is no in-depth data available to carry out thorough accident research study. One estimation is that every fourth accident with injuries involving a motorcyclist on Indonesian road can be avoided by a PTW with ABS (assuming a 100% installation rate of such device). This result is in line with other international studies claiming the avoidance potential of PTW with ABS.

Volume 1, Issue 1 (Jan 2017)

Does an Engineer Requires an Art of War?

Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim
Editorial
pages 2-3

Excerpt: Does an engineer requires an Art of War? There is no mechanical answer to the question, however the answer very much depends on how people view the ‘Art of War’; none of the ancient Chinese tales has captured more beautifully than the essence of Sun Tzu’s The Art of War (Dimovski et al., 2012; Emerson & Peter, 1994). It has been a premier classic of strategists. Who doesn’t remember its famous quotes “to overcome others’ armies without fighting is the best skills”? It is not what engineers look for, the best solution at the most efficient cost?

Driving Simulator Development with Two Degrees of Freedom Motion for Driver Behavior Study

M. F. Mohd Siam, N. Borhan and A. Sukardi
pages 4-11

Abstract: This paper discusses about the development of a driving simulator with 2 Degree of Freedom (DOF) motion platform as a data collection tool for driver behavior research. The simulator was installed with motion platform, steering wheel, pedals, transmission, screens, computer, simulation software and sound system to record the driving behaviors in simulated traffic environment. Data containing information such as participants’ response time, vehicle speed, acceleration, braking, turn signals use and vehicle positioning were collected. This paper also discusses the benefits of driving simulator development for driver behavior research while addressing its challenge and limitation for future improvement. The paper concludes that the driving simulator development can contribute significantly to road safety research specifically in driver behavior study.

Performance and Emissions of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Water-in-Diesel Emulsion

S. Watanabe, W. J. Yahya, A. M. Ithnin and H. Abd Kadir
pages 12-19

Abstract: Power generation using combustion engine cause severe air pollution. Research for a high efficient engine with less harmful emission is highly demanded. Water-in-Diesel (W/D) emulsion has a potential to reduce fuel consumption and harmful exhaust emission, especially nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Experimental study was conducted by operating single cylinder MR MARK MC-D6500E diesel generator at different loading conditions while using two types of W/D emulsion containing different water contents (10 and 20 vol.%) with 1 (one) vol.% of surfactant (span 80) as additive to stabilize the fuel. The effect of water on fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and emission has been studied and the results have been compared to conventional diesel fuel. The result showed NOx and PM were reduced up to 51% and 14% respectively by using W/D emulsion. Fuel consumption also was up to 10% improved by using W/D emulsion.

ASEAN NCAP’s Contribution to Malaysia’s Automotive Ecosystem

K. A. Abu Kassim, Z. Mohd Jawi and M. H. Md Isa
pages 20-32

Abstract: After five years of establishment, ASEAN NCAP has assessed 62 distinct car models available in the ASEAN market and produced 96 ratings based on the Adult Occupant Protection (AOP) and Child Occupant Protection (COP) rating system. The program has so far drawn participation from 20 different brands or OEMs, signifying a mutual understanding between ASEAN NCAP and OEMs to create a ‘safer car’ environment in the region. This review presents a compilation of the results as well as ASEAN NCAP’s distinctive contribution to the automotive ecosystem in Malaysia, where the program was initiated. In a broader sense, ASEAN NCAP has achieved meaningful and promising results toward a safer automotive ecosystem for Malaysian road users and provided added-value to car ownership.

Hazard Perception: Does Experience Matter?

A. A. Ab Rashid and M. K. A. Ibrahim
pages 33-40

Abstract: Hazard perception is a critical skill in driving. Without which, drivers have high chances to get involved in crashes. Previous study in literature highlighted that hazard perception test may not be a suitable diagnostic tool in distinguishing novice and experienced drivers. Current study aimed to replicate this finding, but involved drivers with more experience than the one in literature. The results revealed that while both less- and more-experienced drivers are identical in terms of reaction time to hazards, the former group recognised less hazards than the latter.

Aerodynamic Analysis of F1 IN SCHOOLS™ Car

S. J. Lim and M. R. A. Mansor
pages 41-54

Abstract: F1 IN SCHOOLS™ is a worldwide competition that is part of the efforts undertaken by the STEM educational model. In order to increase the performance of the F1 IN SCHOOLS™ car in terms of speed, two important parameters related to aerodynamic analysis are considered – drag coefficient and downforce coefficient. Drag force is a force that acts in the direction that is opposite of the car’s motion, thus reducing the car’s maximum speed. Meanwhile, sufficient downforce is beneficial to the car model because it allows the car’s wheels to remain in contact with the track surface without going off-track. The most important component of a F1 IN SCHOOLS™ car is its front wing since its design has a significant effect on the drag coefficient and downforce coefficient induced by the air flow. Therefore, the objective of this study is to design a front wing that is capable of producing low drag coefficient while maintaining sufficient downforce coefficient. Moreover, this study also aims to examine the method of preventing flow separation at the rear part of the car model. This study will use Autodesk Inventor Professional to create the car mode. The simulation will be run using the STAR CCM+ software. The simulation will also be used to obtain the drag coefficient and downforce coefficient of the car.

Comparing Occupant Injury in Vehicles Equipped with and without Frontal Airbag

Y. Ahmad, K. A. Abu Kassim, M. H. Md Isa and S. Mustaffa
pages 55-62

Abstract: Most vehicle structures have been designed to withstand crash impact during an accident. The front area of the vehicle will crumple to absorb crash energy while the passenger compartment remains intact to protect the occupant inside. In addition, restraint system inclusive of airbag and seatbelts has been integrated in vehicles to further enhance the occupant’s protection. However, in certain cases, the airbag is removed due to cost saving by car manufacturers. Although the frontal airbags have been removed, the structure remains the same. This can be observed from the crash tests conducted by ASEAN NCAP on two variants of the same car model which are fitted with and without airbags, where the cars obtained two different rating. This case study compares and presents occupant injuries for both variants.

Development of an Automotive Anti-Roll Bar: A Review

M. Mohammad Taha, S. M. Sapuan, M. R. Mansor, and N. Abd Aziz
pages 63-81

Abstract: In this study, understanding between the operation and mechanism of an automotive anti-roll bar is reviewed. Design consideration of the automotive anti-roll bar is studied from past researchers with the summarized of current invention of automotive anti-roll bar. In development of the automotive anti-roll bar, interaction between design elements such as material, function analysis, forces analysis, failure analysis and geometry specifications are essentially need to be considered in development of it without affecting its conventional function and achieve the performance target. The potential of the fibre reinforced composite such as natural fibre is likely to be the next future generation of automotive anti-roll bar. Considerations of the aforementioned design elements would help design engineers to outcome the challenges in design of composite materials. The inventions that patented by the past inventors would help as a guide.